The process of securing wires within underground mines



What is the definition of Locking Wires?
Traditional locking wires are a simple frame composed of several steel wires, which are twisted into wires and threaded into a hole. Cable poles are often installed in space ducts in order to reinforce and support walls, ceilings, and basements or open spaces. A variety of supports are available due to their versatility. The narrow radius facilitates the installation of long bars in small work areas by utilizing diverse steel wire configurations that provide distinct working conditions. If the diameter of the hole is substantial, it is not arduous to insert two or more wires into the same hole to augment the resistance. Furthermore, face shields may be incorporated in the form of plates, straps, or mesh. Cable ties are compatible with other support systems, such as shotcrete, machined grout, or countersinking.

The impact of the steel tie elements is transmitted to the rock through the grout. The cement employed in the clamps consists of Portland cement and water. In some mining areas, additives are added to the mix in order to improve the swelling properties of the grout. 

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Other materials, such as resin and shotcrete, have been explored for cable locking applications. Other materials, such as fiberglass, have been developed to replace steel. This publication focuses on cables constructed from 7-strand steel and cement concrete.

Safety is important in mining or construction projects, whether it be mining or construction. Various support methods, such as machined rock columns and screens, shotcrete, or rebar grout, are used in small tunnels or mine escapes in order to protect workers from small blocks and loose stones falling from the ceiling or sidewalls. Cable ties are an attractive support system for large transitions, large basements, or larger areas of robust mine design due to their high load capacity and extended bolt lengths. The longer it takes for loose blocks or broken rocks to collapse, the more likely they will be to collapse.


This heightened demand necessitates the utilization of cable ties in order to guarantee safety. We need to increase the system's capacity. Area protection systems, such as screens, can be employed to safeguard miners from small fragments of loose rock, while ropes can be employed to prevent surface loosening of poor rock masses. However, they are not a substitute for this type of bonding. This type of application is not achievable with cables alone. The second chapter discusses applied force connections.

Wires have the capability to penetrate deeply into the rock and provide sufficient reinforcement to prevent separation by weak planes, such as connections. Clamps improve stability by channeling the strength of the rock mass while maintaining their properties within the rock mass. Furthermore, by supporting the rock blocks on the surface of the excavation, it prevents the remaining rock from loosing or weakening. Cable studs reduce the harmful and costly consequences of instability and continuous failure.

Cable studs are capable of being installed in extensive shafts to attain the limits of mine shafts that have been planned and made accessible by modern mining techniques. It is imperative to provide walls and shorelines that cannot be constructed. Cables are one of the only options for supporting impervious rock walls for stability and dilution control. They are one of the only options for supporting impervious rock walls.

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Dilution control can have a direct and significant impact on void cost. Dilution has many disadvantages. Waste rock, which possesses minimal or no economic value, is disposed of as waste, crushed, crushed, bagged, ground, and bound in tailings landfills, at a high cost. Furthermore, despite producing the highest milling speed, the mill operates at a minimal energy level. Unexpected delays in processing large slurries, landfill slurries, and changes in mine schedules are also costly.

Another illustration of the economic significance of diluted rock can be found in the works of Bawden (1993), Elbrond (1994), Pakalnis et al. (1995), Planet et al. (1990), Planeta and Szymanski (1995), and Stillborg (1986) Numerous mining manuals contain calculations that monitor the progress of tailings dilution in mining and milling to ascertain the overall economic impact. Nonetheless, providing an elucidation of mining economics is beyond the scope of this publication.

All modern mines have very low dilution limits resulting from smoothing of vein edges to make them suitable for pumping and other planned sources of dilution. In numerous instances, particularly in the context of cone/slag, unintentional dilution resulting from the collapse of waste rock can swiftly result in mine failure. This unplanned dilution phase can be rectified through the implementation of improved pit design and the utilization of cable pole supports.

Numerous mines have discovered the efficacy of cable blocks in reducing white dilution, thereby reducing or eliminating this scaling. In fact, locking cables can help clear larger obstacles and increase productivity. Figure 1.2.3 presents the theoretical values of slenderness as a function of the depth of cut and peel for an unsupported ridge of simple geometry.

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